General Microbiology (2008/2009)

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Course code
4S00279
Credits
7
Coordinator
Giovanni Vallini
Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
Microbiologia generale 6 BIO/19-MICROBIOLOGY 1° Sem Giovanni Vallini
Microbiologia generale (laboratorio) 1 BIO/19-MICROBIOLOGY 1° Sem Silvia Lampis

Learning outcomes

Module: Microbiologia generale
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The Course aims to introduce the students to the fundamentals, the main methods of investigation and the basic applications of microbiology, with reference to both activity and properties of the microorganisms either prokaryotes or eukaryotes, including bacteria, archaebacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and - in a distinguished position as non-cellular biological forms - the viruses. During the first part of the Course, topics will be discussed such as morphology and structure, genetics and biochemical-metabolic diversity, evolution and ecology of the microorganisms, according to the mechanisms through which these microbes interact with the surrounding environment. In the second part of the Course, the microorganisms will be analyzed as means for either research purposes or different biotechnological applications, with particular mention to the methods of cultivation and control of their growth and metabolism. The third part of the Course will finally focus on the mechanisms of interaction between pathogenic microorganisms and man, with an analysis of the general principles of epidemiology.


Module: Microbiologia generale (laboratorio)
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The main objective of the laboratory experiences is to give to the students the fundamentals for the main techniques in classical microbiology such as the isolation in pure culture of microbial strains starting from different matrices, their cultivation and identification through morphological analyses and cultural and physiological tests

Syllabus

Module: Microbiologia generale
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First Part (A). 1.A Principles of microbiology - 1.1a) Aspects of the microbial life. 1.2a) Macromolecules of microbial interest. 1.3a) Structure and function of the microbial cell: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 1.4a) Nutrition, cultivation and metabolism of microorganisms. 1.5a) Microbial growth and methods for the control of microbial growth. 1.6a) Elements of molecular biology of microorganisms. 1.7a) Regulation of the microbial metabolism. 1.8a) Basic aspects of virology. 1.9a) Fundamentals of bacterial genetics. 2.A Evolutionary microbiology and microbial diversity – 2.1a) Theory of evolution within microorganisms and microbial taxonomy. 2.2a) Diversity of prokaryotes: bacteria and archaebacteria. 2.3a) Diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms. 2.4a) Principles of microbial genomic. 2.5a) Diversity of viruses. 3.A Metabolic diversity and microbial ecology – 3.1a) Diversity of microbial metabolic processes for energy production and carbon assimilation. 3.2a) Methods in microbial ecology. 3.3a) Structure of different microbial ecosystems. 3.4a) Biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur. 3.5a) Introduction to soil microbiology and interactions plant-microorganisms.

Second Part (B). 1.B Genetic engineering and biotechnology of microorganisms - 1.1b) Techniques in microbial genetic engineering. 1.2b) Applications of microorganisms in basic research. 1.3b) Microorganisms for the management of environmental problems. 1.4b) Microorganisms and agriculture. 1.5b) Microorganisms and food production. 1.6b) Exploitation of microorganisms in non-food industrial productions.

Part Third (C). 1.C Interactions man-pathogenic microorganisms - 1.1c) Infection mechanisms: virulence factors and toxins. 1.2c) Control of microbial growth in vivo: antibiotics, antifungal and antiviral products. 1.3c) Resistance to the antimicrobial substances. 2.C Diseases of microbial origin - 2.1c) Transmission of man-to-man microbial diseases. 2.2c) Microbial diseases from animals and endemic soil pathogenic microorganisms. 2.3c) Diagnostic microbiology and immunological techniques 3.C Principles of epidemiology and public hygiene - 3.1c) The vocabulary of epidemiology. 3.2c) Current world epidemiology. 3.3c) Measures for the control of epidemic diseases. 3.4c) Pathogenic microbial agents and biological weapons.


Module: Microbiologia generale (laboratorio)
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1. Aseptic techniques: Transfert from Broth culture to another broth; Transfert from Broth culture to agar plate; Transfert from agar plate to broth – 2. Staining and observation of Microrganism: Gram staining, Spore staining, Acid Fast staining – 3. Culture methods: Culture media preparation – 4. Enumeration of bacteria: Diluting and plating procedure; Counting of CFU (Colony Forming Units); Determination of Growth by optical density – 5. Identification of unknown bacteria: Morphological study; Cultural characteristics; Physiological characteristics

Assessment methods and criteria

Module: Microbiologia generale
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Written mid-term exams with both descriptive answers and multi-choice quizzes.

Possible integration with a final oral examination


Module: Microbiologia generale (laboratorio)
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Written Report about laboratory procedures and results obtained

Studying