Genome wide analysis has been conducted for several important diseases in large populations, but there are many discrepancies between the studies. A possible reason is the lack of analysis of gene-environment interactions. Furthermore, there is generally little information provided on the functional role of identified genes. In EURUGEN, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes, all important in Russia and the EU, will be investigated in a multi-center case control study using genome-wide analysis. The samples will be analysed with high throughput genotyping, deep sequencing and metabolomics to provide useful data for a functional genomics approach. In addition, environmental and lifestyle data will be collected to provide a comprehensive description of gene-environment interactions related to each disease. Correlations will be made not only with disease onset but also co-morbidities between the three diseases and their complications, and potential prognostic markers will be identified. The project will take initial steps towards functional analysis of selected polymorphisms and will develop predictive models for use by epidemiologists and clinicians. The consortium is balanced between three Russian partners from different regions, and three European partners. European partners will support the high throughput genotyping, transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of samples from Russian populations and there will be training opportunities for Russian scientists to learn these techniques, thus aiding capacity building in the Russian groups.