|Teoria||5||II semestre||Annalisa Polverari|
|Laboratorio||2||II semestre||Annalisa Polverari|
General concepts and terms in phytopathology. Disease cycle. Symptom description.
Main groups of phytopathogenic organisms: oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, phytoplasmas, viruses and viroids. Virulence and pathogenicity factors. Basic epidemiology.
Traditional and advanced diagnostic tools.
Mechanisms of plant resistance to pathogens.
Plant protection: agronomic practices for disease prevention; control measures: physical, chemical and organic protection. National and EU legislation for pesticide registration and use. Grapevine breeding for disease resistance.
Biology and control of all main grapevine diseases. Integrated approaches to grapevine protection.
Scientific interest and economic significance of plant diseases;
the concept of disease in plants, types of plant diseases.
Parasitism and pathogenicity; host range, symptoms, stages in the development of disease, the disease cycle.
Characteristics and classification of plant pathogenic fungi, procariotes, viruses, viroids.
Pathogenicity and virulence factors. Basic concepts of epidemiology.
Molecular plant-microbe interaction and the genetic bases of disease resistance. Preexisting structural and chemical defenses; Non-host resistance; race-specific resistance. Induced of structural and biochemical defenses. Signal transduction and related signal molecules. The hypersensitive reaction. Systemic acquired resistance, induced systemic resistance.
Grapevine diseases caused by fungi and fungal-like organisms (cycle, epidemiology and control)
Plasmopara viticola (Downy mildew)
Erysiphe necator (powdery mildew)
Botrytis cinerea (Grey mould)
Other bunch rots (Penicillium, Aspergillus, yeasts and bacteria)
Armillaria root rot
Wood decay: esca disease; Eutypa lata.
Grapevine diseases caused by procariotes (grapevine phytoplasmas, Xylophilus ampelinus, Xylella fastidiosa, Agrobacterium spp.).
Grapevine diseases caused by viruses (Grapevine fanleaf, leaf roll, corky bark and other viral wood diseases, fleck)
Control of plant diseases. Quarantine, sanitary certification; prevention of disease by agronomical techniques and deployment of resistance cultivars; direct protection by chemicals or biological agents. Integrated pest management.
Practical lessons in the lab and in the field.