Agricultural and wine microbiology - MICROBIOLOGIA AGRARIA (2019/2020)

Course code
4S003186
Credits
6
Academic sector
AGR/16 - AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY
Language of instruction
Italian
Teaching is organised as follows:
Activity Credits Period Academic staff Timetable
Teoria 5 I semestre Giovanna Felis

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Laboratorio [Laboratorio - esercitazioni 1° turno] 1 I semestre Giovanna Felis

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Laboratorio [Laboratorio - esercitazioni 2° turno] 1 I semestre Giovanna Felis

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Learning outcomes

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MM: Teoria
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The module aims at providing general information on the structure, physiology, biochemistry, genetics and ecology of microorganisms, with a particular emphasis on those relevant for the viti-viniculture chain, with the aim of understanding the strategies for their growth and survival and how to avoid uncontrolled proliferation. The basics of microbiology techniques and the latest acquisitions of microorganisms methods will be presented and discussed.
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MM: Laboratorio
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During laboratory experiments, students will undertake a number of activities to acquire the ability to manipulate and characterize microorganisms in the lab. Laboratory experiments aim at providing the student with the critical capacity needed to properly use classical microbiology methods to observe and characterize microorganisms adopting appropriate safety precautions.

Syllabus

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MM: Teoria
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Short history of microbiology. Introduction on identity and distribution of microrganisms in the vitiviniculture chain. The cell: general concepts, distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Morphology and cytology of the microbial cell. Structure and functions of the prokariotic cell: cell wall, capsule, flagella, cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, ribosomes, reserve substances, bacterial genomes. The bacterial spore. Microbial nutrition. Cultivation techniques, selection and isolation techniques. Microorganisms and environment: responses to temperature variation, oxygen, pH and water activity. Microbial growth kinetics. Control of microorganisms by physical and chemical agents. Microbial metabolism. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The main fermentations. Genetics of microorganisms. Genetic information in bacteria: bacterial chromosome, plasmids and transposons. Mutations: selection and identification of mutants. Horizontal transfer of gene information between bacteria: transformation, conjugation, transduction. Production of bacterial recombinants. The viruses. Bacteriophages: lithic cycle and lysogenic cycle. Classification of micro-organisms. The concept of species. Traditional and molecular taxonomy. Groups of microorganisms. Techniques for the analysis of microbial diversity and their application in the study of ecosystems relevant for the viticulture and oenology.
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MM: Laboratorio
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The activities will include participation in the preparation of experiments, including safety instructions. Preparation of solutions and culture media, observation under a microscope, staining (e.g., Gram staining for bacteria), preparation of serial dilutions, plating on solid media to determine colony forming units of a microbial culture. Moreover, tests will be carried out to characterize microorganisms, such as the determination of the physiological profile (API tunnels), the verification of the ability to produce gas and the presence of catalase activity of isolates deriving from pure cultures of microrganisms.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: Teoria
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The exam aims to verify the skills and knowledge acquired in the context of the topics addressed during the lectures and laboratory activities. The verification of learning, both for attending students and non-attending students, will be carried out at the end of the module through a written test lasting 120 minutes, during which the consultation of texts, notes and other supports is not allowed. The test consists of: - 1 exercise and 1 open-ended question concerning laboratory experiences, - 5 open-ended questions concerning the course contents. The correct answer to the question and to the exercise are conditio sine qua non for passing the exam. Each of the five subsequent questions is assigned from 0 to 6 points. To pass the test the candidate must reach at least 18 points. There will also be the right, for each student, to deliver, at the time of the exam, a report on the practical exercises carried out in the laboratory; this report will be associated with a maximum score of 2 points. The achievement of scores above 31 gives the candidate the praise. The exam in Agricultural and Oenological Microbiology must be considered passed if a score of at least 18 is reached in each of the two modules and the overall grade is determined as the arithmetic average of the evaluations obtained in each module.
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MM: Laboratorio
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In the written exam there will be an exercise and an open question related to the laboratory experiences. A written report of the laboratory experience may also be prepared by students, whose evaluation, up to a maximum of 2 points, will be added to the final mark of the written test.

Reference books
Activity Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Teoria Biavati Sorlini MICROBIOLOGIA GENERALE E AGRARIA (Edizione 2) CEA editrice ambrosiana 2012 9788808181138