Radioactivity and radiation protection (2018/2019)

Course code
Francesca Monti
Academic sector
Language of instruction
Teaching is organised as follows:
Activity Credits Period Academic staff Timetable
teoria 5 II semestre Al Mamun Imtiazul Haque

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esercitazioni 1 II semestre Al Mamun Imtiazul Haque, Francesca Monti

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Learning outcomes

The course aims at developing innovative educational and research activities based on the production of biomolecules labelled with radioisotopes for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic purposes. The educational and research activities take advantage of the presence of the Radiochemistry Laboratory of the “Sacro Cuore” Hospital in Negrar where a new PET center is presently equipped with the high performance cyclotron (A.C.S.I TR-19), which allows variable energy extraction of protons from 13 MeV to 19 MeV, and two experimental stations with liquid and solid targets for the production of 18F, 13N,11C,89Zr and 124I.

The course introduces the basic knowledge related to the production and use of radioisotopes for imaging and radioisotope therapy, incorporating the Radiation Safety and Radiobiology aspects relating these. Fundamental aspects of Radiotherapy, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine will also been taught. The course will include a visit to the Cyclotron facility and Radiochemistry Laboratory of the Sacro Cuore Hospital as part of the practical experience for the students.


Lectures (48 hours) on following topics;

1. Introduction to Radiation
2. Radioactivity:
Introduction – Fundamental of Nuclear Science, isotopes, isotones and isobars
Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation
The Mechanism of radioactive decay
Natural and Induced Radioactivity
Unit of Radioactivity
Law of radioactive decay

3. Radiation Generators:
Principles of X-ray Production
Medical Linear Accelerator
Radio-isotope Production Units (Cyclotron, Generators and Reactor)

4. Interaction of Radiation with Matter and Penetrating Powers.

5. Biological Effects of Radiation:
Interaction of Radiation with cells
Deterministic and Stochastic Effects
Cancer Induction and hereditary effects
Survival Fraction and Mutation Induction

6. Radiation Units:
Absorption of Energy
Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation
Absorbed Dose
Equivalent Dose
Effective Dose
Dose and Dose Rate
Relationship of Units

7. Review, Tutorial and MCQ test (For topics 1 to 6)

8. Nuclear Imaging Techniques and Equipment
CT in Diagnostic Radiology
SPECT, PET and PET-CT in Nuclear Medicine

Computed Tomography (CT) and PET-CT

9. Radioisotope Therapy and Brachytherapy
Radioisotopes in Therapeutic utilization
Radioisotopes and Brachytherapy – Permanent and Temporary Implants
Imaging aspects in development of Modern Brachytherapy

10. Production of Radioisotopes and Radio-pharmaceuticals. Practical lesson at the laboratory of Sacro Cuore Hospital in which dott. Giancarlo Gorgoni will show: in a first step a cyclotron production of F-18 tracer, its synthesis and relative quality control; in a second step a production from gallium-68 generator, its labelling with a peptide and relative quality control (always radiochemical purity).

11. Radiotherapy – Modern Development and Imaging
Fundamental of Radiotherapy
Techniques and Procedure
Modern developments
Developments in Imaging for Treatment Planning
Development in Imaging for Treatment Delivery – IGRT, ART

12. Fundamental of Radiation Protection
Natural and Man Made Radiation
Systems of Radiological Protect
Optimization and ALARA Principle
External and Internal Radiation Hazards

13. Radiation Protection in Medicine
Diagnostic Procedures
Nuclear Medicine
Control and Disposal of Radioactive Materials

14. Quality Control and Quality Assurance in radiotherapy

15. Final Review, Tutorial and Assssment of the whole course. Model Tests for Final Exam

Assessment methods and criteria

The final examination will in the written form, and based in the complete course materials dealt with. The Exam questions will consist of 10 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) and 5 of short answer type.