|teoria||5||I sem.||Antonella Furini|
|laboratorio||1||I sem.||Antonella Furini|
The course examines the main strategies of plant genetics and crop improvement. Molecular markers and tools for gene expression analysis and improvement of crops are addressed. Objective of the course is also the evolution of crop species, sinteny, plant genome structure and genetic variability useful for crop improvement. Aspects of plant biotechnology for improving crop species to increase yield and quality of products obtained by cultivation.
Introduction to molecular genetics. Plant breeding and crop mprovement. Molecular genetics for increasing crop yield. Green revolution, Harvest Index. GAi and the green revolution genes. Change plant architecture to increase yield. Perennialism. Biotechnology expectation. Biodiversity, centers of origin of crop plants, genetic variability. Plant domestication and evolution: hybridization, polyploidy and mutation. Sources of variability. Genome of crop species, synteny and comparative genomics. Plant genome size, transposable elements and genome evolution. Heterosis. Forward genetics and reverse genetics. Gene function analysis.T-DNA-tagging, transposon-tagging, TILLING. Gene silencing, RNA interfering. Molecular markers and assisted selection. Epigenetics, histone modification and DNA methylation. Plant-environment interaction and epigenetic variability. Plant genetic transformation: select and express exogenous genes in plants to improve quality and/or increase yield. Strategies to remove marker genes. Transgenic insertion by homologous recombination. New techniques of genome editing, cisgenesis and intragenesis. Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops.