LEF-BIOWASTE focuses on the development, optimization and evaluation of innovative, low environmental footprint biological processes for the co-treatment of municipal wastewater and biodegradable organic waste (BOW). Waste and wastewater will be co-treated by an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by a sequential batch reactor (SBR). Furthermore, an innovative short-cut nitrogen removal will be employed (i.e. Anammox process). Research shall focus on the effect of operating conditions on the system’s performance and particularly on the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and its subsequent reduction to gaseous nitrogen. Furthermore, LEF-BIOWASTE will examine the fate and removal of targeted non-conventional and emerging pollutants. The work will be carried out by developing and operating a bench scale UASB-SBR and by operating an existing pilot scale UASB-SBR system. The environmental footprint of this system will be compared to conventional wastewater treatment processes by conducting a life cycle assessment. Furthermore, the system will be assessed using technical, environmental, economic and social criteria.