Grapevine Protection (2018/2019)

Course code
4S02740
Credits
12
Coordinator
Annalisa Polverari
Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
ENTOMOLOGIA 3 AGR/11-GENERAL AND APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY II semestre Lorenzo Tonina
PATOLOGIA 9 AGR/12-PLANT PATHOLOGY See the unit page See the unit page

Learning outcomes

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MM: ENTOMOLOGIA
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The aim of the course is to provide knowledge on the biology of the main arthropods harmful to grapevine, their interactions with the plant and the control methods. Particular attention will be given to biotechnologies applied to pest management and to biological and integrated control. At the end of the course, the student will have to demonstrate the ability to know and recognize the grapevine biotic diseases and develop a rational and environmentally friendly tools to control the harmful arthropods.
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MM: PATOLOGIA
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Students will acquire basic knowledge about plant-pathogen interactions, pathogenicity and virulence mechanisms, and plant responses to pathogens. At the end of the Course, students will have specific competences on diagnosis, prevention and therapy of grapevine diseases, according to modern measures of crop management and environment protection.

Syllabus

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MM: ENTOMOLOGIA
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Arthropods characteristics and classification . Morphology, physiology and ethology of insects and mites harmful to grapevine. Nervous, digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory and endocrine systems. Reproduction and cycle development. Population dynamic: biotic potential and environmental resistance. relationship between insects and other organisms: viruses and phytoplasmas transmission. Insect: Classification, biology, damage and control of the main grapevine pests (e.g. moths, phylloxera, leafhoppers, scales and thrips). Grape’s minor pests. Mites and Nematodes: Grape mites and nematodes, biology, ecology and damages. Pest management: Damage threshold. Chemical control and insects management. Insecticides: general information, mode of action, selectivity and phytotoxicity. Pest resistance management and man-made pests. Biological and integrated pest control. Cultural and mechanical control. Biotechnologies in pest management: pheromones definition and application, mass trapping, RNAi, sterile male technique. The knowledge will be developed with lectures, laboratory activities and personal study on the texts and on the material presented in class that will be available in the Library and/or uploaded to e-learning platform. Moreover, throughout the academic year, the individual reception service will be available (by specific appointment). Attending students will receive in the first lesson the complete timetables of teaching activities with the dates and topics discussed in the lessons
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MM: PATOLOGIA
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Introduction to plant pathology History of Plant Pathology, scientific and economic relevance of plant pathology. Terminology: Parasitism and Pathogenicity, Host Range of Pathogens, Stages in the Development of Disease, The Disease Cycle Classification of the main classes of phytopathogens (taxonomy) Diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi and fungal-like organisms General features of phytopathogenic fungi Taxonomy and classification The infection process Pathogenicity factors: lytic enzymes, phytotoxins, hormones, research for fungal pathogenicity factors. Diseases caused by phytopathogenic procariotes General features of phytopathogenic procariotes (bacteria and phytoplasmas) Taxonomy and classification The infection process Pathogenicity factors: lytic enzymes, phytotoxins, hormones, LPSs, research for bacterial pathogenicity factors. Diseases caused by phytopathogenic viruses and viroids General features of phytopathogenic viruses Taxonomy and classification The infection process: transmission, replication, movement. Viroids: transmission, replication. Diagnostic tools in phytopathology: Isolation of pathogens in pure culture: Kock’s postulates Biochemical, serological and molecular methods in plant disease diagnosis Use of indicator plants Basic concepts in Plant Protection Control Methods that Exclude the Pathogen from the Host: Quarantines and Inspections, Crop Certification Agronomical and physical measures for disease control and prevention Direct Protection of Plants from Pathogens: Chemical and Biological Control measures Breeding for Resistance and Genetic Engineering Techniques: Genetics of Virulence in Pathogens and of Resistance in Host. Integrated approaches to plant disease control Basic concepts of epidemiology; examples of forecasting models for prevention and therapy of plant diseases. Specific pathogens and diseases presented: Fungi and fungal-like pathogens Downy mildew Powdery mildew Gray mold Root rot (Armillaria , Rosellinia) Trunk diseases : esca, Eutypa, Phomopsis Tracheomycoses (Verticillium sp) Berry rottings Bacteria and phytopalsmas A. tumefaciens, A. vitis e Xylophilus ampelinus,Xylella fastidiosa Candidatus fitoplasma spp.: Flavescence dorée; Bois Noir Viruses and viroids Grapevine fanleaf Grapevine leafroll Corky bark; stem pitting; stem grooving. Fleck disease of grapevine

Assessment methods and criteria


The exam will be made in oral form for both attending students and non-attending students. The exam will assess the degree of knowledge on the topics presented during the lectures. The knowledge and the ability to connect knowledge in a systemic and critical way will also be evaluated. The final evaluation is expressed in thirtieths. To determine the overall grade of the exam, the weighted average of the votes obtained in the two modules will be calculated.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Belli Giuseppe Elementi di Patologia vegetale Piccin-Nuova Libraria 2015
Agrios G.N. Plant Pathology (Edizione 4) Harcourt Academic Press 1997 0120445646
A. Lucchi Note di Entomologia Viticola Ed. Pisa University 2016