Agricultural and wine microbiology (2018/2019)



Course code
4S003186
Credits
12
Coordinator
Sandra Torriani
Academic sector
AGR/16 - AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY
Language of instruction
Italian
Teaching is organised as follows:
Activity Credits Period Academic staff Timetable
Teoria agraria 5 I semestre Giovanna Felis

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Laboratoro agraria [Laboratorio 1° turno] 1 I semestre Giovanna Felis

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Laboratoro agraria [Laboratorio 2° turno] 1 I semestre Giovanna Felis

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Teoria enologica 5 II semestre Sandra Torriani

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Laboratorio enologica [Laboratorio 1° turno] 1 II semestre Sandra Torriani

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Laboratorio enologica [Laboratorio 2° turno] 1 II semestre Sandra Torriani

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Learning outcomes

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MM: Teoria 1
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The module aims at providing general information on the structure, physiology, biochemistry, genetics and ecology of microorganisms for understanding the strategies for their growth and survival and how to avoid uncontrolled proliferation. The basics of microbiology techniques and the latest acquisitions of microorganisms methods will be presented and discussed.
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MM: Laboratorio - agraria
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During laboratory experiments, students will undertake a number of activities to acquire the ability to manipulate and characterize microorganisms in the lab. Laboratory experiments aim at providing the student with the critical capacity needed to properly use classical microbiology methods to observe and characterize microorganisms adopting appropriate safety precautions.
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MM: Laboratorio - agraria
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During laboratory experiments, students will undertake a number of activities to acquire the ability to manipulate and characterize microorganisms in the lab. Laboratory experiments aim at providing the student with the critical capacity needed to properly use classical microbiology methods to observe and characterize microorganisms adopting appropriate safety precautions.
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MM: Teoria 2
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The module will provide the instruments needed to acquire theoretical and practical skill on the biotechnological aspects of fermentation and transformation of must and wine, and on the stability of the final product. These skills are of great importance to understand, manage, and optimize the activities of yeasts and bacteria in relation to the characteristics of the must and the wine to be obtained, as well as of the productive process applied.
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MM: Laboratorio - enologica
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Laboratory exercises to acquire competence on classical and innovative analytical methods.
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MM: Laboratorio - enologica
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Laboratory exercises to acquire competence on classical and innovative analytical methods.

Syllabus

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MM: Teoria 1
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Historical development of microbiology. The cell: general concepts, distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Morphology and cytology of the microbial cell. Structure and functions of the prokariotic cell: cell wall, capsule, flagella, cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, ribosomes, reserve substances, bacterial genomes. The bacterial spore. Microbial nutrition. Cultivation techniques, selection and isolation techniques. Microorganisms and environment: responses to temperature variation, oxygen, pH and water activity. Microbial growth kinetics. Control of microorganisms by physical and chemical agents. Microbial metabolism. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The main fermentations. Genetics of microorganisms. Genetic information in bacteria: bacterial chromosome, plasmids and transposons. Mutations: selection and identification of mutants. Horizontal transfer of gene information between bacteria: transformation, conjugation, transduction. Production of bacterial recombinants. The viruses. Bacteriophages: lithic cycle and lysogenic cycle. Classification of micro-organisms. The concept of species. Traditional and molecular taxonomy. Groups of microorganisms. Techniques for the analysis of microbial diversity and their application in the study of ecosystems relevant for the viticulture and oenology.
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MM: Laboratorio - agraria
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The activities include the preparation of culture solutions and media, microscopic observation, after staining (e.g., Gram staining), preparation of decimal dilutions, plating, and plate counts. Characterization assays, such as physiological profiling (API galleries), gas capacity testing, antibiotic susceptibility testing (antibiogram) will also be performed.
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MM: Laboratorio - agraria
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The activities include the preparation of culture solutions and media, microscopic observation, after staining (e.g., Gram staining), preparation of decimal dilutions, plating, and plate counts. Characterization assays, such as physiological profiling (API galleries), gas capacity testing, antibiotic susceptibility testing (antibiogram) will also be performed.
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MM: Teoria 2
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Part II. Wine Microbiology. The microorganisms of oenological interest: yeasts and bacteria in winemaking. The yeasts: classification, metabolism, reproduction, genetics. The must as a substrate for microbial development. The alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. The principal and secondary products of fermentation. The lactic acid bacteria: definition and classification. The malolactic fermentation: effects on the sensory characteristics and the wholesomeness of wines. Other microorganisms of oenological interest: acetic acid bacteria and mould. Wine spoilage of microbial origin. Definition and characteristics of spoilage microorganisms. Production of biogenic amines, etilcarbammate and ochratoxin. Microbial ecology: the spontaneous fermentation of grape must. The controlled fermentations. Starter cultures of yeasts and malolactic bacteria for wine. Clonal selection of yeasts, genetic improvement, selection of technological and qualitative characteristics, autolytic capacity. Clonal selection of malolactic bacteria, selection of technological and qualitative characteristics. Use of microbial inoculants in oenology. Working conditions, induction / arrest of alcoholic fermentation. Microbial interactions and wine quality. Methods for the isolation, identification and technological characterization of yeasts and malolactic bacteria. Traditional methods. Direct and indirect rapid methods. Molecular techniques.
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MM: Laboratorio - enologica
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- Microscopy applied to microorganisms of oenological interest (elliptic and apiculate yeasts, lactic bacteria, acetic bacteria, molds). - Analysis of the microbiological quality of oenological starter. Yeast isolation. - Physiological and technological tests on isolates. - DNA extraction and genetic typing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. - Microvinification trials and monitoring of malolactic fermentation.
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MM: Laboratorio - enologica
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- Microscopy applied to microorganisms of oenological interest (elliptic and apiculate yeasts, lactic bacteria, acetic bacteria, molds).
- Analysis of the microbiological quality of oenological starter. Yeast isolation.
- Physiological and technological tests on isolates.
- DNA extraction and genetic typing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.
- Microvinification trials and monitoring of malolactic fermentation.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: Teoria 1
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The assessment of learning, for both attending and non-attending students, will be done at the end of the module through a written test of approximately 120 minutes, during which text books, notes, and other tools are not admitted. The test consists of 10 open questions for each of which a maximum score of 3 points will be assigned, and 1 open questions, associated with a maximum of 1 point. The examination will be considered positive if at least 18 points will be assigned to the candidate. To gain access to the test, at least the previous day of the test, the candidate must submit a report on the practical activities carried out in the laboratory; this report will have a maximum score of 2 points. Scores higher than 31 will result in the "laude". It is possible to view the performed test and ask for clarification. In case the written test is not passed, it has to be repeated. The examination is aimed to assess and verify the skills and knowledge acquired in the issues addressed throughout all the course program. The course of Agricultural and Wine Microbiology will be considered positive if the score of at least 18 points will be reached in both the modules and the final score will derive from the arithmetic mean of the scores obtained in the two modules.
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MM: Laboratorio - agraria
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At the end of lab experiences, students, in small groups, will have to prepare a report of the experiences, which will be evaluated up to a maximum of 2 points. This score will be added to the mark obtained in the written exam on the contents of the course.
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MM: Laboratorio - agraria
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At the end of lab experiences, students, in small groups, will have to prepare a report of the experiences, which will be evaluated up to a maximum of 2 points. This score will be added to the mark obtained in the written exam on the contents of the course.
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MM: Teoria 2
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The assessment of learning, for both attending and non-attending students, will be done at the end of the module through a written test of approximately 75 minutes, during which text books, notes, and other tools are not admitted. The test consists of 8 open questions for each of which a maximum score of 2 points will be assigned, and 20 multiple choice questions, each associated with a maximum of 1 point. The examination will be considered positive if at least 18 points will be assigned to the candidate. To gain access to the test, at least the previous day of the test, the candidate must submit a report on the practical activities carried out in the laboratory; this report will have a maximum score of 2 points. Scores higher than 31 will result in the "laude". It is possible to view the performed test and ask for clarification. In case the written test is not passed, the assessment of learning will be carried out with an oral exam which consists of three or four questions posed to each candidate. The exam lasts about 30 minutes. Both written and oral examinations are aimed to assess and verify the skills and knowledge acquired in the issues addressed throughout all the course program. The course of Agricultural and Wine Microbiology will be considered positive if the score of at least 18 points will be reached in both the modules and the final score will derive from the arithmetic mean of the scores obtained in the two modules.
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MM: Laboratorio - enologica
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Students have to prepare a report on the practical activities carried out in the laboratory; this report will be provided at least the day before the written test, and will be evaluated with a maximum score of 2 points. This score will be added to the mark obtained in the exam on the contents of the course.
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MM: Laboratorio - enologica
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Students have to prepare a report on the practical activities carried out in the laboratory; this report will be provided at least the day before the written test, and will be evaluated with a maximum score of 2 points. This score will be added to the mark obtained in the exam on the contents of the course.

Reference books
Activity Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Teoria agraria Biavati Sorlini MICROBIOLOGIA GENERALE E AGRARIA (Edizione 2) CEA editrice ambrosiana 2012 9788808181138
Teoria agraria Iaccarino Microrganismi benefici per le piante (Edizione 1) Idelson-Gnocchi 2006 8879474383
Teoria enologica Suzzi G. & Tofalo R. Microbiologia enologica (Edizione 2) Edagricole 2018 978-88-506-5557-1

STUDENT MODULE EVALUATION - 2017/2018