Agricultural and wine microbiology (2016/2017)



Course code
4S003186
Credits
12
Coordinator
Sandra Torriani
Academic sector
AGR/16 - AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY
Language of instruction
Italian
Teaching is organised as follows:
Activity Credits Period Academic staff Timetable
Teoria 1 5 I sem. Giovanna Felis
Teoria 2 5 II sem. Sandra Torriani
Laboratorio I [Laboratorio II Microbiologia agraria] 1 I sem. Giovanna Felis
Laboratorio I [Laboratorio I Microbiologia agraria] 1 I sem. Giovanna Felis
Laboratorio II [Laboratorio II Microbiologia enologica] 1 II sem. Sandra Torriani
Laboratorio II [Laboratorio I Microbiologia enologica] 1 II sem. Sandra Torriani

Lesson timetable

I sem.
Activity Day Time Type Place Note
Teoria 1 Tuesday 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM lesson Lecture Hall Ferrarini (Lebrecht) from Nov 8, 2016  to Dec 13, 2016
Teoria 1 Thursday 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM lesson Lecture Hall Ferrarini (Lebrecht) from Nov 10, 2016  to Dec 15, 2016
Teoria 1 Friday 10:30 AM - 1:30 PM lesson Lecture Hall Ferrarini (Lebrecht) from Nov 17, 2016  to Jan 31, 2017
Teoria 1 Friday 2:30 PM - 5:30 PM lesson Lecture Hall Ferrarini (Lebrecht) from Nov 11, 2016  to Nov 17, 2016
Laboratorio I [Laboratorio I Microbiologia agraria] Tuesday 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM laboratorio Laboratory Laboratorio di Microbiologia generale from Jan 10, 2017  to Jan 31, 2017
Laboratorio I [Laboratorio I Microbiologia agraria] Thursday 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM laboratorio Laboratory Laboratorio di Microbiologia generale from Jan 12, 2017  to Jan 31, 2017
Laboratorio I [Laboratorio I Microbiologia agraria] Thursday 2:30 PM - 5:30 PM lesson Laboratory Laboratorio Didattica (Lebrecht) from Jan 12, 2017  to Jan 31, 2017
Laboratorio I [Laboratorio I Microbiologia agraria] Friday 2:30 PM - 6:30 PM laboratorio Laboratory Laboratorio Didattica (Lebrecht) from Jan 13, 2017  to Jan 31, 2017
Laboratorio I [Laboratorio II Microbiologia agraria] Friday 12:30 PM - 2:30 PM laboratorio Laboratory Laboratorio Didattica (Lebrecht) from Jan 13, 2017  to Jan 31, 2017
II sem.
Activity Day Time Type Place Note
Teoria 2 Wednesday 11:30 AM - 1:30 PM lesson Lecture Hall Ferrarini (Lebrecht) from Mar 1, 2017  to Apr 28, 2017
Teoria 2 Wednesday 2:30 PM - 4:30 PM lesson Lecture Hall Ferrarini (Lebrecht) from Mar 1, 2017  to Apr 5, 2017
Teoria 2 Thursday 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM lesson Lecture Hall Ferrarini (Lebrecht) from Mar 1, 2017  to Apr 28, 2017
Laboratorio II [Laboratorio I Microbiologia enologica] Friday 12:30 PM - 1:30 PM laboratorio Laboratory Laboratorio Didattica (Lebrecht) from Mar 31, 2017  to Jun 9, 2017
Laboratorio II [Laboratorio II Microbiologia enologica] Wednesday 2:30 PM - 6:30 PM laboratorio Laboratory Laboratorio Didattica (Lebrecht) from Apr 12, 2017  to Jun 9, 2017
Laboratorio II [Laboratorio II Microbiologia enologica] Friday 2:30 PM - 6:30 PM laboratorio Laboratory Laboratorio Didattica (Lebrecht) from Mar 31, 2017  to Jun 9, 2017

Learning outcomes

The course will introduce general principles on the structure, physiology, biochemistry, genetic, and ecology of microorganisms with the ultimate goal to understand their growth and survival strategies, and to avoid uncontrolled microbial proliferation. Basic microbiological techniques will be presented, as well as the most advanced methods for the characterization of microorganisms.
The course will provide the instruments needed to acquire theoretical and practical skill on the biotechnological aspects of fermentation and transformation of must and wine, and on the stability of the final product. These skills are of great importance to understand, manage, and optimize the activities of yeasts and bacteria in relation to the characteristics of the must and the wine to be obtained, as well as of the productive process applied.

Laboratory exercises are designed to acquire manual ability in the application of classical and innovative microbiological methods.

Syllabus

Part I. Agricultural microbiology.
Historical development of microbiology. The cell: general concepts, the distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Morphology and cytology of the microbial cell. Structures and functions of prokaryotic cell: cell wall, capsule, flagella, cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, ribosomes, reserve materials, bacterial genome. The bacterial spore.
Microbial nutrition. Cultural techniques, techniques of selection and isolation. The micro-organisms and the environment: responses to temperature change, oxygen tension, pH, and water activity. Kinetics of microbial growth. Control of microorganisms by physical and chemical agents.
The microbial metabolism. The aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The main fermentations.
Overview of microbial genetics. The genetic information in bacteria: bacterial chromosome, plasmids and transposons. Mutations: selection and identification of mutants. Horizontal transfer of genetic information between bacteria: transformation, conjugation, and transduction. Production of recombinant bacteria. Viruses. The bacteriophages: lytic cycle and lysogeny.
Classification of microorganisms. The concept of species. Classical and molecular taxonomy. Groups of microorganisms.

Part II. Wine Microbiology.
The microorganisms of oenological interest: yeasts and bacteria in winemaking. The yeasts: classification, metabolism, reproduction, genetics. The must as a substrate for microbial development. The alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. The principal and secondary products of fermentation. The lactic acid bacteria: definition and classification. The malolactic fermentation: effects on the sensory characteristics and the wholesomeness of wines. Other microorganisms of oenological interest: acetic acid bacteria and mould. Wine spoilage of microbial origin. Definition and characteristics of spoilage microorganisms. Production of biogenic amines, etilcarbammate and ochratoxin.
Microbial ecology: the spontaneous fermentation of grape must. The controlled fermentations. Starter cultures of yeasts and malolactic bacteria for wine. Clonal selection of yeasts, genetic improvement, selection of technological and qualitative characteristics, autolytic capacity. Clonal selection of malolactic bacteria, selection of technological and qualitative characteristics. Use of microbial inoculants in oenology. Working conditions, induction / arrest of alcoholic fermentation. Microbial interactions and wine quality. Methods for the isolation, identification and technological characterization of yeasts and malolactic bacteria. Traditional methods. Direct and indirect rapid methods. Molecular techniques.

Laboratory:
Part I. Agricultural Microbiology.
The microbiology laboratory: tools and equipments. Introduction to the basic microbiological techniques (culture media preparation, sterilization techniques, pure culture method, serial dilutions).
Research of specific microbial groups in samples of different origin.
Plate counts. Spread plate.
Observation at the optical microscopy of wet samples.
Simple and differential staining of microorganisms.
Identification of microorganisms through miniaturized systems.

Part II. Wine Microbiology.
Microscopy observations of the microorganisms of oenological interest (elliptical and apiculate yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, acetic bacteria, moulds).
Analysis of the microbiological quality of yeast starter cultures. Isolation of yeasts.
Technological and physiological tests on yeast isolates.
Extraction of DNA, and genetic typing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Microvinification tests and monitoring of fermentations.

Assessment methods and criteria

The examination will consist of a written and / or oral evaluation of the degree of learning achieved on the program done, both theoretical and practical.

Reference books
Activity Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Teoria 2 Suzzi G. & Tofalo R. Microbiologia enologica (Edizione 2) Edagricole 2018 978-88-506-5557-1

STUDENT MODULE EVALUATION - 2016/2017