Oenology II (2014/2015)

Course code
4S00151
Credits
12
Coordinator
Fabio Favati
Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
TECNOLOGIE E PROCESSI ENOLOGICI 9 AGR/15-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY See the unit page See the unit page
TECNOLOGIE E CONDIZIONAMENTO DEI VINI 3 AGR/15-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY II sem. Fabio Favati

Learning outcomes

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MM: TECNOLOGIE E PROCESSI ENOLOGICI
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 Provide students with the cognitive elements of the transformation processes of grapes and principles of different winemaking techniques.  Providing with sufficiently detailed knowledge of the technologies used in different processes of winemaking.  Deepening all those aspects needed for management of wine processes.  Provide methodological elements to operate independently and to achieve specific goals winery.  Providing with method elements to operate independently and to achieve specific wine objectives.  Implement operational knowledge and skills in relation to analysis and tests for the management of oenological processes.
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MM: TECNOLOGIE E CONDIZIONAMENTO DEI VINI
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Aim of the course is to provide the students with the basic knowledge related to wine packaging and conditioning, with a special emphasis on the relationships among container, closure and product. At the end of the course the students should be able to choose, according to the product category and characteristics, consumers’ requests and production costs, the most suitable conditioning procedure as well as the packaging so to ensure that the required quality and shelf-life of the products. Through an active participation to the solution of practical case studies, the students will acquire the required knowledge and skills for the correct choice of suitable technical processes, containers and closures, as well as for the management of problems that may arise during the various steps of wine conditioning. Furthermore, participating to guided visits to wine production plants or to factories manufacturing equipment for the wine industries, the students will meet and discuss with technical specialists and will be able to realize the issues related to the real life on a production line.

Syllabus

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MM: TECNOLOGIE E PROCESSI ENOLOGICI
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Syllabus  Grape maturity, maturation indices, alterations of the grapes (gray mold, rot acid, etc.).  Overripe grapes: withering in withering room, late harvests, "noble rot", "ice wine".  Production technologies of wine made from overripe grapes.  Corrections of musts, membrane techniques (reverse osmosis, pervaporazione, direct osmosis, nanofiltration).  Production of musts and dumb musts, concentrated musts, grape musts, grape juice, desulfurization, rectified concentrated musts.  Must extraction processes: stemming, crushing, pressing.  Biochemistry and transformation of grape must during prefermentation.  Processes of separation and clarification of musts: sedimentation, filtration, clarification, centrifugation, flotation.  Management of alcoholic fermentation.  Fermentation to produce conventional white vinification wines , in a strong oxidant setting, in a reduced skin maceration, cold maceration, with heat treatments, cold fermentation, production of white wines from red grapes, sparkling wine production base.  Fermentation for the production of red wines: conventional red wine making (maceration, bleeding, enzyming, etc..), steeping hot flash detente, carbonic maceration.  Enzyme treatment: the chemistry of enzymatic reactions, enzymes and substrates involved, use of exogenous enzymes, enzyme stability.  Management of malolactic fermentation.  Conservation and wine aging. Redox potential and aging, evolutionary processes, role of oxygen in enhancing wine aging in barrels and casks.  Treatment of wines (corrections chemical adjuvants, clarifications, changes color, etc.).  Filtration, tangential filtration, microfiltration.  Stabilization and Preparation for bottling wines: tartaric stability, protein, colloidal, color, microbiological stability, demetalisation, etc...  Diseases, damage and deterioration of wines, preventions and treatments: chemical oxidation, microbial changes, reductions, rainfall and chemical and physical stability, vinyl phenols, ethyl phenols, cork taint, reduced, "taste of mouse, other alterations.
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MM: TECNOLOGIE E CONDIZIONAMENTO DEI VINI
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The main issues related to conditioning and packaging of wine products. Packaging materials: glass, PET, tetrapack, steel; technical characteristics and properties, advantages and disadvantages related to their utilization. Bottle closures: natural and synthetic cork, metallic screw cap closures, crown caps, glass stoppers; technical characteristics and properties, advantages and disadvantages related to their utilization. Cleaning and sanitation processes for wine containers: how and why. Choice and use of cleaning and sanitation chemicals, the role of water; CIP and COP technical choices. Wine prefilling treatments: cooling, filtration technology, filtration index. Filling of wine containers: description of the available equipment, properties, advantages and disadvantages, choice of the suitable equipment according to the product’s characteristics. The use of heat shrink capsules, collars, labels: technical characteristics, equipment, advantages and disadvantages related to different labelling techniques. Besides the suggested textbooks, some study material might also be provided by the lecturer. Part of the course will be devoted to solving real problems that may occur during the production. The students will be guided to find practical answers to the problems, therefore being obliged to have a global approach to the various issues and to take care of all the possible interactions that may occur within the various steps of the conditioning process and the product. Within this frame, students will also participate to guided visits to wine production plants or to factories manufacturing equipment for the wine industry.

Assessment methods and criteria

In order to pass the course of Oenology 2, students are required to be evaluated for each module of the exam. For each module the student wills be graded over a score of 30 points, being 18 the minimum score to pass, and the final score of the whole course will be calculated as weighted average of the two scores, taking into account the number of CFU and the received score. Final score= [(Score of Module1 x 9CFU) + (Score of Module2 x 3CFU)]/12 CFU
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Module: TECNOLOGIE E PROCESSI ENOLOGICI
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Oral examination
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Module: TECNOLOGIE E CONDIZIONAMENTO DEI VINI
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Oral exam - Initially the student will be asked to discuss one of the topics of the course that he considered of the utmost interest. Afterwards, the teacher will present a practical problem that may be faced in the real working life and will evaluate how the candidate will organize and utilize the scientific and technical skills acquired during the study to highlight a possible solution to the problem. In this way the student will be oriented to study for acquiring not a mere "theoretical knowledge" but a "practical" one.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Trapani N. Cultura e tecnica Enologica. Vol. 3 Stabilizzazione Imbottigliamento Vini Speciali Enovitis 2012 978-88-90-14334-2
Mazzoleni V. (a cura di) Il sughero manuale tecnico per il corretto utilizzo dei tappi Disponibile On line http://www.amorimcorkitalia.com/img/Manuale_Tecnico_per_il_corretto_utilizzo_dei_Tappi.pdf Lucini officina d’arte grafica 2012
Nardin G., Gaudio A., Antonel G., Simeoni P. Impiantistica enologica. Ciclo tecnologico di vinificazione e progettazione degli impianti Edagricole-New Business Media 2010 978-88-50-65124-5
Liberati D. I tappi sintetici in enologia ENO-ONE 2005 978-8-888-79204-0
Mazzoleni V., Zironi R., Campisi B. Manuale d’uso sulle tecniche di tappatura delle bottiglie di vino Consorzio per l’AREA di ricerca scientifica e tecnologica di Trieste 2001
Calà P. Sciullo A. Materiali destinati al contatto con gli alimenti Chiriotti Editore 2006 88-85022-97-9
Ribereau-Gayon Trattato di enologia vol I e II (Edizione 3) Edagricole 2007
Jackson, Ronald Wine Science (Edizione 3) Elsevier 2014 978-0-12-381468-5