Oenology I (2014/2015)

Course code
4S00138
Credits
12
Coordinator
Fabio Favati
Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
ANALISI SENSORIALE 3 AGR/15-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY II sem. Lucia Irene Bailetti
CHIMICA ENOLOGICA 6 AGR/15-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY See the unit page See the unit page
OPERAZIONI UNITARIE 3 AGR/15-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY I sem. Fabio Favati

Learning outcomes

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MM: ANALISI SENSORIALE
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THEORY MODULE: The course provides the basic concepts of the discipline of sensory analysis, comparing the quantitative characterization of the wine sensory properties with the sequence of the operating steps of the production process, from the raw material up to aging.
LABORATORY MODULE: The exercises are the complement to deepen the topics covered in theoretical form, to perform the method with an experimental design subjected to international standards and a sensory awareness path of the student.
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MM: CHIMICA ENOLOGICA
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THEORY MODULE: The aim of this course is to provide students with the basic elements of knowledge about the chemical composition of the grapes, musts and wines and their chemical modification during the winemaking. Provide elements method for connecting with other basic scientific disciplines which uses the technique of winemaking.
LABORATORY MODULE: The purpose of this course is to illustrate, by means of practical laboratory experiences the most important analytical procedures for winery applications..
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MM: OPERAZIONI UNITARIE
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Aim of the course is to provide the students with the basic knowledge related to the unit operations utilized in the wine industry. At the end of the course the students should be able to break up a production process in its basic units and evaluate as well as calculate the working parameters involved in each unit operation. Through an active participation to the practical numerical exercises, students will acquire the required knowledge and skills for the correct management of the various unit operations. Furthermore, participating to guided visits to wine production plants or to factories manufacturing equipment for the wine industries, the students will meet and discuss with technical specialists and will be able to face the problems related to the management of the production processes and also of their scale-up.

Syllabus

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MM: ANALISI SENSORIALE
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THEORY MODULE: - Introduction to sensory analysis, human senses, factors influencing the assessment: the psychological and physiological errors, the laboratory, the panel, the panel leader, international standards. - The methods to select a panel. - Overall Difference tests: triangle, paired comparison, duo-trio, two out of five, sorting test. - Experimental design and analysis of results. - Descriptive tests: sensory profile, qualitative and quantitative steps, experimental design, data analysis (univariate and multivariate approach). - The affective tests: panel required, preference and acceptance methods, preference maps. - Introduction to off flavor of wine.
LABORATORY MODULE: - Exercise for sensory training. - Tutorial on discriminating and descriptive methods. evaluation designs, sample preparation - Sensory evaluation of the varietal aromas, prefermentation, fermentation, aging; off flavors. - The threshold of perception. - Sensory characterization of wines according to sensory descriptors
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MM: CHIMICA ENOLOGICA
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THEORY MODULE: The chemical composition of grapes and chemical changes occurring during the winemaking. The carbohydrate substances in grapes and wine: sugars and polysaccharides of grapes and produced after microbial contamination. Organic and inorganic acids composition. Total and volatile acidity. Methods of acidification and de-acidification in must and wine. pH and buffering capacity Tartaric stability. Mineral compounds and their quantification method. Ferric and cupric casse and their prevention. The nitrogen compounds. Wine proteins. Wines protein stability. Foam formation proteins. Phenolic compounds and methods for their determination and quantification. Main reactions of the polyphenols: anthocyanins reactions and their effect on color changes. Main reactions of tannin and their effects on aroma and fining processes. Volatile substances in wines: alcohols and aroma compounds. Analytical method for the determination of volatile compounds. Sulfur dioxide in enology.



LABORATORY MODULE: Main methods of analysis of oenological interest: Sugar determination, pH, total and volatile acidity determination; Total polyphenols determination: Total anthocyanins determination; Colour evaluation; Sulfur dioxide determination; Alcohol determination.
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MM: OPERAZIONI UNITARIE
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Classification of the unit operations. Process formalization through symbolic models. Dimensional analysis. General definition of transport phenomena. Steady state and unsteady state mass and heat transfer. Mass and energy balance. Fundamentals of rheology. Fluid dynamics and pumps. Unit operations; milling, sedimentation, centrifugation, filtration, reverse osmosis, cristallization, evaporation, drying technology. Besides the suggested textbooks, some study material might also be provided by the lecturer. Students will be guided to solve real problems that may occur in the wine industry and will be guided to find practical answers by also solving numerical exercises. This will oblige the students to have a global approach to the various issues and to take care of all the possible interactions that may occur among the different components of the raw materials and the various unit operations. Within this frame, students will also participate to guided visits to wine production plants or to factories manufacturing equipment for the wine industry.

Assessment methods and criteria

In order to pass the course of Oenology 1, students are required to be evaluated for each module of the exam. For each module the student will be graded over a score of 30 points, being 18 the minimum score to pass, and the final score of the whole course will be calculated as weighted average of the two scores, taking into account the number of CFU and the received score. Final score= [(Score of Module1 x 6CFU) + (Score of Module2 x 3CFU) + (Score of Module3 x 3CFU)]/12 CFU
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MM: ANALISI SENSORIALE
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The exam consists of written test, with solving sensory problems and general question about the current program.
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MM: CHIMICA ENOLOGICA
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Written exam on the topics presented during the lessons and the practical work in the laboratory
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MM: OPERAZIONI UNITARIE
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Oral exam - Initially the student will be asked to discuss one of the topics of the course that he considered of the utmost interest. Afterwards, the teacher will present a practical problem that may be faced in the real working life and will evaluate how the candidate will organize and utilize the scientific and technical skills acquired during the study to highlight a possible solution to the problem. In this way the student will be oriented to study for acquiring not a mere "theoretical knowledge" but a "practical" one. Students are not required to take a specific exam for the practical part of the course. However, the acquired knowledge and skills will be evaluated within the oral exam set for the theoretical part of the course, taking into account the students’ capability to adapt and use in the real productive world the acquired theoretical knowledge and skills.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
SISS (ed.), Atlante Sensoriale dei prodotti alimentari, Tecniche Nuove, 2012
Peri C e Zanoni B. Manuale di tecnologie Alimentari Voll. 1,2 3 e 4 CUSL Milano 2003 9788881322213
Pompei C. Operazioni unitarie della tecnologia alimentare CEA 2009 978-8-808-18342-2
Ribereau-Gayon Trattato di enologia vol I e II (Edizione 3) Edagricole 2007
Pagliarini E. Valutazioni sensoriali: Aspetti teorici, pratici e metodologici, Hoepli, 2002
Jackson, Ronald Wine Science (Edizione 3) Elsevier 2014 978-0-12-381468-5
Ribereau-Gayon Trattato di enologia vol I e II (Edizione 3) Edagricole 2007 88-506-4770-0
Jackson R.S. Wine Science, Third Edition: Principles and Applications (Edizione 3) Academic Press 2008 978-0-123-73646-8
R. Paul Singh and Dennis R. Heldman Introduction to Food Engineering (Edizione 4) Academic Press; 2008 978-0123709004